Very unusual issue. Only thing which I can think of is that one of the JVM( your chrome browser connecting to this jvm) is in a unstable state. Check your web browser logs to see which jvm is receiving your failed login requests.
Unstable JVM state could be that admin mode is on in that particular JVM cache or something is wrong in that JVM which is failing the AD authentication.
There could be many more reason but I would start from web browser logs to see which JVM is rejecting your login requests. Stop that particular JVM to see if you are facing this issue.